Medical waste, due to its content of hazardous substances, poses serious threats to environmental health. They composed of all types of wastes generated by health care organizations such as hospitals, clinics, physicians' offices, dental offices, veterinary facilities and other medical laboratories and research facilities. This waste is very heterogeneous in nature and often contains some infectious elements, thus it is essential that the handling and disposal of the waste is conducted safely. Medical wastes that can be incinerated include:
- Infectious wastes from hospitals,
- Healthcare wastes from hospitals, clinics and polyclinics,
- Wastes from maternity hospitals,
- Expired drugs,
- Surgery wastes,
- Biomedical wastes,
- Pathological wastes,
- Pharmaceutical wastes.
About 85% of a hospital's waste is general refuse, while the remaining 15% is contaminated with infectious agents (e.g. microbiological cultures, blood and blood products, isolation wastes from patients with communicable diseases, pathological specimens and sharps).
Landfilling as a method of disposal for medical wastes may lead big problems. First of all, there is a demand for large area to landfill the wastes. Moreover, there should be no settlement site near landfill due to its possible hazards to human life. Odor is the first problem that the people living close to landfill area may face with. Additionally, leakage originated in the landfill cause soil and groundwater contamination as well as the surface water contamination.
Unlike other methods of handling such as sterilization or autoclave disinfection, incineration creates much less end-products. After a complete combustion of medical wastes, incineration reduces the weight and volume of the waste as much as 95%. Moreover, above mentioned methods are not suitable for every type of medical wastes, like pathological tissue, chemotherapy waste, and sharps, whereas the incinerator can be used for all types of wastes originated in the healthcare institutions.
Disadvantages of autoclave:
- Requires trained staff for operation,
- HInability to change waste appearance,
- Inability to change waste volume,
- Production of uncharacterized air emissions,
- Unsuitable All Waste Types,
- Load density critical to treatment,
- Ergonomic Concerns,
Medical Waste Incinerators has two combustion chambers. In the main combustion chamber wastes are incinerated in 900 °C with the principle of starved air incineration and the flue gas originated in this chamber is directed to the secondary combustion chamber. In the secondary combustion gases formed during the incineration of wastes in the main combustion chamber are re-burnt at 1200 °C during 2 seconds. Excess air is provided to the secondary combustion chamber to achieve complete combustion of organic content of the waste.
There are two main Regulations for the Medical Waste Incineration Systems in the world; namely, EPA and EU 2000/76/EC. Şantes Incinerators can be designed fully in compliance with both of these regulations as well as the local standards.
In order to be fully in compliance with the desired Emission Standards, Şantes Incineration Systems Includes flue gas treatment units. Flue Gas Treatment in these systems is multi pollutant control approach to remove the hazardous content of combustion gas originated due waste incineration.